Flevy Blog is an online business magazine covering Business Strategies, Business Theories, & Business Stories.

ROTI: Return on Training Investment Calculations

Editor's Note: Take a look at our featured best practice, Training Evaluation Model (TEM) (71-slide PowerPoint presentation). The four-level Training Evaluation Model (TEM) is the worldwide standard for evaluating the effectiveness of training. It considers the value of any type of training, formal or informal, across four levels. The model can be applied before, during and after training to both maximize and [read more]

Also, if you are interested in becoming an expert on Human Resource Management (HRM), take a look at Flevy's Human Resource Management (HRM) Frameworks offering here. This is a curated collection of best practice frameworks based on the thought leadership of leading consulting firms, academics, and recognized subject matter experts. By learning and applying these concepts, you can you stay ahead of the curve. Full details here.

* * * *

The concept of Return on Investment (ROI) was formed as part of the concept of Value Creation.  The origins of ROI were in the Manufacturing sector, where it’s simple to measure time and output.  Next, to adopt the concept was the Banking industry where intense competition necessitated Innovation Management and with that the need to calculate ROI.  ROI calculation is now a common feature in every industry and business function.

Employee Training is part and parcel of workforce development.  It necessitates spending a lot of effort and resources.  Deliberating if the Training Program is going to be worth all the costs is a valid concern.

Return on Training Investment (ROTI) is the comparison between financial benefits obtained from a training program and the total cost of running that training program.  The objective of ROTI analysis is to see whether the benefits outweigh the costs i.e., to establish if the investment was worthwhile.

ROTI calculation and analysis is significant when:

  • Investment in a training program is viewed as a substantial outlay.
  • Attainment of explicit strategic or operational objectives is associated with the training program.
  • Financial benefits and their amount from the training program is ambiguous.

ROTI can be calculated dependably so long as:

  • Measurement data on changes in business performance, pertinent to training, is reliable or can be rationally estimated by those who matter.
  • Financial values can be assigned to the applicable performance measures.
  • Cost related to developing, delivering, and handling the training program can be classified.

ROTI calculation involves selecting performance measures, gathering data on those measures as well as data on costs—both direct and indirect—related to training, and lastly calculating the Return On Training Investments.

Key steps in the ROTI calculation are:

  1. Choose the performance measures to use.
  2. Gather data on changes.
  3. Gather data on costs.
  4. Calculate ROTI.

There are 3 types of calculations that are relevant in ROTI analysis.

  1. ROTI as a percentage
  2. Benefit to Cost Ratio (BCR)
  3. Payback Period

Let us delve a little deeper into the calculation methods.

1. ROTI as a percentage

This calculation shows Net Training Benefits as a percentage of Training Cost.  An outcome of 100% or more denotes that the Program has a Net Benefit after accounting for all the costs connected with running the program.

2. Benefit : Cost Ratio (BCR)

This ratio divides Total Training Benefits by Total Training Costs.  When BCR is greater than 1, the benefits exceed the costs and the program is judged a success.  When BCR is less than 1, the costs surpass the benefits and signify that enhancements or alterations are needed to warrant the continuation of the program.

3. Payback Period

This calculation exhibits the time in which the Training Investment will be paid back i.e., when the costs equal the benefits.  The calculation is usually done in terms of months.

Monthly Training Benefits are calculated by dividing Total Training Benefits over 12 months.

It is pertinent to note that although ROTI analysis is important in evaluating a training program, merely a ROTI calculation will not typically be adequate to make the business case for a Training Program or influence top management to act.  Sometimes we have to consider non-monetary benefits of training, such as a change in attitude.  When monetary and non-monetary benefits are combined, these supplement Performance Management resulting in benefits such as reduced absenteeism, lower turnover rates, and more promotions from within.

Interested in learning more about Return on Training Investment?  You can download an editable PowerPoint on Return On Training Investment (ROTI) here on the Flevy documents marketplace.

Do You Find Value in This Framework?

You can download in-depth presentations on this and hundreds of similar business frameworks from the FlevyPro Library.  FlevyPro is trusted and utilized by 1000s of management consultants and corporate executives. Here’s what some have to say:

“My FlevyPro subscription provides me with the most popular frameworks and decks in demand in today’s market.  They not only augment my existing consulting and coaching offerings and delivery, but also keep me abreast of the latest trends, inspire new products and service offerings for my practice, and educate me in a fraction of the time and money of other solutions.  I strongly recommend FlevyPro to any consultant serious about success.”

– Bill Branson, Founder at Strategic Business Architects

“As a niche strategic consulting firm, Flevy and FlevyPro frameworks and documents are an on-going reference to help us structure our findings and recommendations to our clients as well as improve their clarity, strength, and visual power.  For us, it is an invaluable resource to increase our impact and value.”

– David Coloma, Consulting Area Manager at Cynertia Consulting

“FlevyPro has been a brilliant resource for me, as an independent growth consultant, to access a vast knowledge bank of presentations to support my work with clients. In terms of RoI, the value I received from the very first presentation I downloaded paid for my subscription many times over!  The quality of the decks available allows me to punch way above my weight – it’s like having the resources of a Big 4 consultancy at your fingertips at a microscopic fraction of the overhead.”

– Roderick Cameron, Founding Partner at SGFE Ltd

21-slide PowerPoint presentation
Development of Learning Media and Learning Resources Contents : 1. Learning Media 2. Do Some Media Produce More Learning Than Others ? 3. Media and Instructional Method 4. Edgar Dale : Cone of Experience 5. Audiovisual Methods in Teaching 6. Multimedia 7. E-learning 8. Daniel Churchill : [read more]

Want to Achieve Excellence in Human Resource Management (HRM)?

Gain the knowledge and develop the expertise to become an expert in Human Resource Management (HRM). Our frameworks are based on the thought leadership of leading consulting firms, academics, and recognized subject matter experts. Click here for full details.

The purpose of Human Resources (HR) is to ensure our organization achieves success through our people. Without the right people in place—at all levels of the organization—we will never be able to execute our Strategy effectively.

This begs the question: Does your organization view HR as a support function or a strategic one? Research shows leading organizations leverage HR as a strategic function, one that both supports and drives the organization's Strategy. In fact, having strong HRM capabilities is a source of Competitive Advantage.

This has never been more true than right now in the Digital Age, as organizations must compete for specialized talent to drive forward their Digital Transformation Strategies. Beyond just hiring and selection, HR also plays the critical role in retaining talent—by keeping people engaged, motivated, and happy.

Learn about our Human Resource Management (HRM) Best Practice Frameworks here.

Readers of This Article Are Interested in These Resources

131-slide PowerPoint presentation
The TWI Job Instruction (JI) program trains supervisors in how to instruct a person to perform a job correctly and safely; and to be productive as quickly as possible, while creating less scrap, rework, and damage to tools and equipment. This tried and tested methodology is based on [read more]

72-slide PowerPoint presentation
70-slide PowerPoint presentation

About Mark Bridges

Mark Bridges is a Senior Director of Strategy at Flevy. Flevy is your go-to resource for best practices in business management, covering management topics from Strategic Planning to Operational Excellence to Digital Transformation (view full list here). Learn how the Fortune 100 and global consulting firms do it. Improve the growth and efficiency of your organization by leveraging Flevy's library of best practice methodologies and templates. Prior to Flevy, Mark worked as an Associate at McKinsey & Co. and holds an MBA from the Booth School of Business at the University of Chicago. You can connect with Mark on LinkedIn here.

, , , , , , , , , ,

Complimentary Business Training Guides

Many companies develop robust strategies, but struggle with operationalizing their strategies into implementable steps. This presentation from flevy introduces 12 powerful business frameworks spanning both Strategy Development and Strategy Execution. [Learn more]

  This 48-page whitepaper, authored by consultancy Envisioning, provides the frameworks, tools, and insights needed to manage serious Change—under the backdrop of the business lifecycle. These lifecycle stages are each marked by distinct attributes, challenges, and behaviors. [Learn more]

We've developed a very comprehensive collection of Strategy & Transformation PowerPoint templates for you to use in your own business presentations, spanning topics from Growth Strategy to Brand Development to Innovation to Customer Experience to Strategic Management. [Learn more]

  We have compiled a collection of 10 Lean Six Sigma templates (Excel) and Operational Excellence guides (PowerPoint) by a multitude of LSS experts. These tools cover topics including 8 Disciplines (8D), 5 Why's, 7 Wastes, Value Stream Mapping (VSM), and DMAIC. [Learn more]
Recent Articles by Corporate Function






The Flevy Business Blog (https://flevy.com/blog) is a leading source of information on business strategies, business theories, and business stories. Most of our articles are authored by management consultants and industry executives with over 20 years of experience.

Flevy (https://flevy.com) is the marketplace for business best practices, such as management frameworks, presentation templates, and financial models. Our best practice documents are of the same caliber as those produced by top-tier consulting firms (like McKinsey, Bain, Accenture, BCG, and Deloitte) and used by Fortune 100 organizations. Learn more about Flevy here.

Connect with Flevy:


About Flevy.com   /   Terms   /   Privacy Policy
© . Flevy LLC. All Rights Reserved.