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Flevy Management Insights Case Study
Six Sigma Process Refinement for Industrial Packaging Manufacturer


Fortune 500 companies typically bring on global consulting firms, like McKinsey, BCG, Bain, Deloitte, and Accenture, or boutique consulting firms specializing in Six Sigma to thoroughly analyze their unique business challenges and competitive situations. These firms provide strategic recommendations based on consulting frameworks, subject matter expertise, benchmark data, KPIs, best practices, and other tools developed from past client work. We followed this management consulting approach for this case study.

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Consider this scenario: The organization in question specializes in industrial packaging solutions within the North American market.

Despite holding a significant market share, the organization has identified inconsistencies and defects in its production processes that are affecting the quality of its output and leading to increased waste and customer dissatisfaction. In response, the company seeks to apply Six Sigma methodologies to improve process efficiency, enhance quality control, and reduce operational costs.



Upon reviewing the situation, the initial hypotheses might focus on a lack of standardized processes, insufficient training in Six Sigma methodologies among staff, or outdated equipment contributing to the quality issues. Moreover, there may be an absence of a culture of continuous improvement which is critical for the Six Sigma philosophy to thrive.

Strategic Analysis and Execution Methodology

The recommended approach to resolve these challenges is to deploy a comprehensive Six Sigma program, which typically unfolds in a structured 5-phase methodology known as DMAIC: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. This methodology offers a systematic, data-driven way to optimize business processes and eliminate defects, resulting in operational excellence and significant cost savings.

  1. Define: Begin by clearly defining the problem, project goals, customer demands, and process boundaries. This phase sets the foundation for the project and aligns the team on the objectives.
  2. Measure: Collect data on current processes to establish baselines for improvement. This phase involves detailed process mapping and data collection to understand the existing state.
  3. Analyze: With data in hand, identify the root causes of defects and process inefficiencies. Analytical tools and techniques are utilized to pinpoint the critical factors affecting quality.
  4. Improve: Develop and implement solutions to address the root causes. This phase may involve redesigning processes, implementing new technologies, or enhancing workforce capabilities.
  5. Control: Establish controls to sustain the improvements. This includes monitoring performance, embedding new process standards, and ensuring continued adherence to these standards.

Learn more about Operational Excellence Six Sigma Process Mapping

For effective implementation, take a look at these Six Sigma best practices:

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Six Sigma Implementation Challenges & Considerations

An executive might question the integration of Six Sigma with existing workflows without causing disruption. The methodology is designed to be adaptable, integrating with current processes through phased implementation and emphasizing employee involvement and training to minimize resistance to change.

Another consideration is the scalability of improvements. Six Sigma provides a scalable framework that can start with pilot projects in critical areas and then expand to other parts of the organization, ensuring that improvements are manageable and sustainable.

Lastly, there may be concerns about the time to see tangible results. Six Sigma projects can vary in duration, but with consistent application and commitment, organizations typically see measurable improvements within 3 to 6 months of project initiation.

Expected business outcomes include a reduction in defect rates by up to 70%, process cycle time improvements of 30-50%, and potential cost savings in the range of 20-30% of the affected processes.

Potential implementation challenges include resistance to change from employees, difficulties in data collection and analysis, and the need for ongoing management support to ensure the new processes are maintained.

Learn more about Six Sigma Project Disruption

Six Sigma KPIs

KPIS are crucial throughout the implementation process. They provide quantifiable checkpoints to validate the alignment of operational activities with our strategic goals, ensuring that execution is not just activity-driven, but results-oriented. Further, these KPIs act as early indicators of progress or deviation, enabling agile decision-making and course correction if needed.


Measurement is the first step that leads to control and eventually to improvement.
     – H. James Harrington

  • Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO): Measures the number of defects in a process per one million opportunities. A lower DPMO indicates higher process quality.
  • Process Sigma Level: Indicates the number of standard deviations between the process mean and the nearest specification limit. Higher Sigma levels mean fewer defects.
  • Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ): Tracks the costs that would disappear if systems, processes, and products were perfect.

These KPIs provide insights into the effectiveness of the Six Sigma initiative, highlighting areas of success and opportunities for further improvement.

For more KPIs, take a look at the Flevy KPI Library, one of the most comprehensive databases of KPIs available. Having a centralized library of KPIs saves you significant time and effort in researching and developing metrics, allowing you to focus more on analysis, implementation of strategies, and other more value-added activities.

Learn more about Flevy KPI Library KPI Management Performance Management Balanced Scorecard

Implementation Insights

Throughout the implementation of Six Sigma, it's essential to foster a culture of quality and continuous improvement. According to a PwC study, companies with a strong culture of quality spend, on average, $350 million less annually fixing mistakes than a typical Global 500 company.

Another insight is the importance of leadership commitment. Six Sigma initiatives are more successful when leaders are actively involved and supportive. McKinsey research indicates that successful transformations are 5.4 times more likely when senior managers communicate a transformation's progress.

Integrating Six Sigma with Lean principles can further enhance efficiency and reduce waste. A study by Bain & Company found that organizations that integrated Lean Six Sigma saw a 40% increase in their operational efficiency on average.

Learn more about Continuous Improvement Leadership

Six Sigma Deliverables

  • Process Optimization Plan (PPT)
  • Six Sigma Training Toolkit (PDF)
  • Quality Control Dashboard (Excel)
  • Project Charter Document (MS Word)
  • Executive Summary Report (PPT)

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Six Sigma Case Studies

A notable case study involves a Fortune 500 manufacturing company that implemented Six Sigma across its global operations. As a result, the company reported a 50% reduction in process cycle times and a 60% decrease in manufacturing defects within the first year.

In another instance, a leading consumer packaged goods company applied Six Sigma to its supply chain processes. This led to a 25% improvement in delivery times and a significant reduction in inventory costs, contributing to a stronger competitive position in the market.

Lastly, a prominent aerospace firm utilized Six Sigma methodologies to streamline its engineering processes. The initiative resulted in a 30% increase in productivity and a substantial improvement in product quality and reliability, enhancing customer satisfaction and brand reputation.

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Six Sigma Best Practices

To improve the effectiveness of implementation, we can leverage best practice documents in Six Sigma. These resources below were developed by management consulting firms and Six Sigma subject matter experts.

Aligning Six Sigma with Corporate Strategy

Ensuring that Six Sigma initiatives are aligned with the broader corporate strategy is paramount. Six Sigma should not be seen as a standalone project but as a strategic tool that supports the company's long-term goals. A BCG study found that companies that align their operational-improvement programs with their strategic priorities can achieve three times the improvement in performance metrics compared to those that do not.

It's essential to integrate Six Sigma objectives with the company's strategic planning process. This alignment helps in prioritizing projects that have the most significant impact on strategic goals and ensures that resources are allocated effectively. Moreover, it aids in communicating the importance of quality initiatives across the organization, thus garnering the necessary support and buy-in from all levels of the company.

Learn more about Strategic Planning Corporate Strategy

Customizing Six Sigma for Different Business Units

While Six Sigma provides a structured approach, it is flexible enough to be customized for different business units within an organization. Accenture research emphasizes the importance of tailoring methodologies to suit specific operational contexts to maximize effectiveness. The customization can involve adapting the tools and techniques to the unique challenges and processes of each unit while maintaining the integrity of the Six Sigma principles.

Customization also involves setting relevant metrics and goals for each unit. What constitutes a critical defect or a significant improvement in one part of the business may differ in another. Therefore, it is crucial to work closely with unit managers to define these parameters and ensure that the Six Sigma projects are relevant and focused on driving improvements that matter to each business unit.

Building Six Sigma Expertise Within the Organization

Developing internal Six Sigma expertise is a strategic investment that pays dividends in the long term. According to a report by PwC, companies that invest in developing in-house expertise in process improvement methodologies, such as Six Sigma, report higher levels of sustained performance improvement. This investment can take the form of training programs, certifications, and the establishment of a center of excellence within the company.

Creating a cadre of Six Sigma champions and black belts within the organization not only reduces reliance on external consultants but also helps in embedding a continuous improvement mindset within the company culture. These internal experts can lead projects, mentor others, and ensure that Six Sigma practices are consistently applied across the organization.

Learn more about Process Improvement Center of Excellence

Measuring the Impact of Six Sigma on Customer Satisfaction

While operational metrics are essential, the ultimate goal of Six Sigma is to enhance customer satisfaction. A study by Bain & Company revealed that companies that consistently align their improvement efforts with customer needs see a 10-15% increase in customer advocacy. Therefore, it's crucial to establish metrics that directly reflect the impact of Six Sigma projects on customer experience, such as Net Promoter Score (NPS) or Customer Effort Score (CES).

Regular feedback loops with customers to gauge their satisfaction with product quality and service levels can provide valuable data to measure the effectiveness of Six Sigma initiatives. This feedback can also inform ongoing improvements and help to maintain a customer-centric approach to quality management.

Learn more about Quality Management Customer Experience Customer Satisfaction

Ensuring Continuous Improvement Post-Six Sigma Implementation

The conclusion of a Six Sigma project is not the end of the improvement journey. To ensure that gains are not just maintained but built upon, organizations must establish a system of continuous improvement. According to McKinsey, organizations that develop a systematic approach to continuous improvement can sustain and build on their gains, with some companies reporting a 25% increase in operational efficiency over a sustained period.

This may involve regular process audits, ongoing training, and a rewards system that recognizes individuals and teams for their contributions to process improvements. Additionally, it's beneficial to keep a dynamic repository of best practices and lessons learned that can be accessed and applied by different parts of the organization to foster ongoing excellence.

Learn more about Best Practices

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Key Findings and Results

Here is a summary of the key results of this case study:

  • Reduced defect rates by 65% across key production lines, surpassing the initial target of 70% reduction.
  • Improved process cycle times by an average of 45%, achieving the higher end of the 30-50% improvement goal.
  • Achieved cost savings of 25% in targeted processes, aligning with the expected range of 20-30%.
  • Increased customer satisfaction scores by 12%, as measured by Net Promoter Score (NPS).
  • Developed in-house Six Sigma expertise, certifying 150 employees as Green Belts and 20 as Black Belts.
  • Implemented a Quality Control Dashboard, enhancing real-time monitoring and decision-making.

The initiative is considered a success, achieving significant improvements in defect rates, process cycle times, and cost savings, which are in line with or exceed the project's goals. The reduction in defect rates and improvement in process cycle times directly contributed to the cost savings and increased customer satisfaction, demonstrating the effectiveness of the Six Sigma methodology in addressing the initial challenges. The development of in-house expertise and the implementation of the Quality Control Dashboard are critical for sustaining these improvements and fostering a culture of continuous improvement. However, the project fell slightly short of the ambitious 70% defect rate reduction target, suggesting that there might have been opportunities for even greater efficiency gains, possibly through more aggressive process redesign or technology upgrades.

For next steps, it is recommended to expand the Six Sigma program to additional production lines and business units, leveraging the learnings and momentum from this initiative. Further investment in technology that supports real-time data analysis and automation could enhance process efficiencies and quality control. Additionally, establishing a more formalized system for continuous improvement, including regular process audits and feedback loops with customers, will help to sustain and build upon the current gains. Finally, continuing to develop and recognize internal Six Sigma expertise will ensure that the organization maintains a strong foundation in quality management and continuous improvement.

Source: Six Sigma Process Refinement for Industrial Packaging Manufacturer, Flevy Management Insights, 2024

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