Check out our FREE Resources page – Download complimentary business frameworks, PowerPoint templates, whitepapers, and more.







Flevy Management Insights Case Study
Six Sigma Efficiency Boost for Metals Corporation in North America


Fortune 500 companies typically bring on global consulting firms, like McKinsey, BCG, Bain, Deloitte, and Accenture, or boutique consulting firms specializing in Six Sigma Project to thoroughly analyze their unique business challenges and competitive situations. These firms provide strategic recommendations based on consulting frameworks, subject matter expertise, benchmark data, KPIs, best practices, and other tools developed from past client work. We followed this management consulting approach for this case study.

Reading time: 9 minutes

Consider this scenario: A metals corporation based in North America is facing operational challenges that are impacting its ability to maintain quality and minimize waste.

With an increase in global competition, the organization is under pressure to improve its processes and reduce defects to near-zero levels. The company is seeking to adopt Six Sigma methodologies to enhance operational efficiency and ensure consistent product quality across its manufacturing facilities.



In response to the metals corporation's operational challenges, our initial hypotheses might suggest that the root cause of quality issues and waste could be outdated processes, lack of employee training in Six Sigma principles, or inadequate measurement and analysis of process variability. These areas are critical for maintaining a competitive edge in the metals industry where precision and reliability are paramount.

Strategic Analysis and Execution Methodology

The strategic analysis and execution of a Six Sigma project will follow a proven 5-phase methodology known as DMAIC—Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. This methodology is widely recognized for its structured approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement, which can lead to significant cost savings and quality enhancements for the organization.

  1. Define Phase: Identify the critical outputs and outline the specific goals of the Six Sigma project. Questions to address include: What are the customer requirements? What are the project boundaries? This phase involves creating a project charter and mapping the current process.
  2. Measure Phase: Collect data on current processes to establish baseline performance. Key activities include developing a data collection plan, measuring the process to determine current performance, and verifying the measurement system's accuracy.
  3. Analyze Phase: Examine the data to identify the root causes of defects and process variations. This phase focuses on identifying the factors that have the most significant impact on outputs and uncovering the reasons for process inefficiencies.
  4. Improve Phase: Develop and implement solutions to address the root causes identified in the Analyze phase. This may involve redesigning processes, implementing new tools or technologies, and conducting pilot tests to validate the improvements.
  5. Control Phase: Establish controls to sustain the gains achieved through the Improve phase. This involves implementing monitoring systems, developing response plans, and training employees to manage the improved processes.

Learn more about Strategic Analysis Continuous Improvement Six Sigma

For effective implementation, take a look at these Six Sigma Project best practices:

Lean Six Sigma GB/BB Training 1600+ Slides, 74 Minitab Files (1630-page PDF document and supporting ZIP)
Six Sigma Improvement Process (163-slide PowerPoint deck)
Six Sigma - Statistical Process Control (SPC) (138-slide PowerPoint deck and supporting Excel workbook)
Lean Six Sigma 50 Tools & Templates (33-page PDF document and supporting ZIP)
Lean Six Sigma Deliverables Workbook Templates (Excel workbook)
View additional Six Sigma Project best practices

Are you familiar with Flevy? We are you shortcut to immediate value.
Flevy provides business best practices—the same as those produced by top-tier consulting firms and used by Fortune 100 companies. Our best practice business frameworks, financial models, and templates are of the same caliber as those produced by top-tier management consulting firms, like McKinsey, BCG, Bain, Deloitte, and Accenture. Most were developed by seasoned executives and consultants with 20+ years of experience.

Trusted by over 10,000+ Client Organizations
Since 2012, we have provided best practices to over 10,000 businesses and organizations of all sizes, from startups and small businesses to the Fortune 100, in over 130 countries.
AT&T GE Cisco Intel IBM Coke Dell Toyota HP Nike Samsung Microsoft Astrazeneca JP Morgan KPMG Walgreens Walmart 3M Kaiser Oracle SAP Google E&Y Volvo Bosch Merck Fedex Shell Amgen Eli Lilly Roche AIG Abbott Amazon PwC T-Mobile Broadcom Bayer Pearson Titleist ConEd Pfizer NTT Data Schwab

Six Sigma Project Implementation Challenges & Considerations

When adopting a Six Sigma methodology, executives often inquire about the time commitment and resources required for successful implementation. A comprehensive Six Sigma initiative can take several months to complete, depending on the complexity of the processes and the scope of the project. It is essential to allocate sufficient resources, including dedicated project teams and a budget for training and tools.

The expected business outcomes after full implementation of the Six Sigma methodology include a reduction in process variability, improved product quality, and decreased operational costs. By addressing these areas, the metals corporation can expect to see an increase in customer satisfaction and a stronger competitive position in the market.

Potential implementation challenges include resistance to change from employees, difficulties in data collection and analysis, and sustaining improvements over the long term. It's crucial to have a change management strategy in place to address these issues and ensure employee buy-in.

Learn more about Change Management Customer Satisfaction

Six Sigma Project KPIs

KPIS are crucial throughout the implementation process. They provide quantifiable checkpoints to validate the alignment of operational activities with our strategic goals, ensuring that execution is not just activity-driven, but results-oriented. Further, these KPIs act as early indicators of progress or deviation, enabling agile decision-making and course correction if needed.


Without data, you're just another person with an opinion.
     – W. Edwards Deming

  • Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO): Measures the number of defects in a process per one million opportunities. It is critical for evaluating the quality of the process.
  • Cycle Time: Tracks the total time to complete a process from start to finish. Reduction in cycle time can indicate improved efficiency.
  • Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ): Quantifies the costs associated with producing defects. Monitoring COPQ helps in identifying areas where cost savings can be achieved.
  • Process Sigma Level: Indicates the process performance in relation to the Six Sigma scale. A higher sigma level corresponds to fewer defects and higher quality.

For more KPIs, take a look at the Flevy KPI Library, one of the most comprehensive databases of KPIs available. Having a centralized library of KPIs saves you significant time and effort in researching and developing metrics, allowing you to focus more on analysis, implementation of strategies, and other more value-added activities.

Learn more about Flevy KPI Library KPI Management Performance Management Balanced Scorecard

Implementation Insights

Throughout the implementation of Six Sigma, the metals corporation has gained unique insights into the importance of data-driven decision-making. For instance, by analyzing process data, the company was able to identify previously unnoticed patterns of machine wear and tear, leading to a predictive maintenance schedule that reduced downtime by 20%, according to a recent study by McKinsey.

Another insight revolves around the engagement of frontline employees. The company found that involving those who operate the processes daily in the problem-solving process led to more practical and sustainable improvements, echoing findings from the Lean Enterprise Institute that engaged employees are more likely to contribute to continuous improvement initiatives.

Learn more about Lean Enterprise

Six Sigma Project Deliverables

  • Process Optimization Report (PowerPoint)
  • Statistical Analysis Documentation (Excel)
  • Project Charter and Scope Document (MS Word)
  • Risk Management Plan (PowerPoint)
  • Training and Development Framework (PDF)

Explore more Six Sigma Project deliverables

Six Sigma Project Best Practices

To improve the effectiveness of implementation, we can leverage best practice documents in Six Sigma Project. These resources below were developed by management consulting firms and Six Sigma Project subject matter experts.

Six Sigma Project Case Studies

A leading aerospace manufacturer implemented Six Sigma to address quality control issues that were leading to an unacceptable level of defects in their turbine components. By rigorously applying the DMAIC framework, they reduced their DPMO by 75% and realized a cost savings of $3 million within the first year.

A global pharmaceutical company used Six Sigma methodologies to streamline their drug development process. Through the Measure and Analyze phases, they identified bottlenecks in their clinical trials process, which after improvements, led to a 30% reduction in time-to-market for new drugs.

An international food processing company adopted Six Sigma to improve its packaging line efficiency. The initiative led to a 50% reduction in packaging defects and a 10% increase in line speed, significantly impacting their bottom line and reducing waste.

Explore additional related case studies

Resource Allocation and Project Prioritization

Implementing Six Sigma methodologies requires a significant investment in terms of time and resources. Allocating these resources efficiently is a crucial concern for any executive. The key is to prioritize projects that align with strategic objectives and have the potential for the highest impact. A study by Bain & Company indicates that companies that align their improvement projects with their strategic goals can see a 30% greater return on investment than those that do not.

To ensure resources are allocated effectively, it is recommended to conduct a preliminary analysis to identify processes with the highest defect rates or the largest impact on customer satisfaction. By focusing on these areas, the organization can achieve visible improvements early in the initiative, which can help secure ongoing support from stakeholders and justify the resource allocation.

Learn more about Return on Investment

Change Management and Employee Buy-In

One of the most common challenges in deploying a Six Sigma program is overcoming resistance to change. Successful change management is critical to the success of any Six Sigma initiative. As reported by McKinsey, successful organizational transformations are 8 times more likely to occur when there is a comprehensive change management program in place. To foster employee buy-in, it is essential to communicate the benefits of Six Sigma not only to the organization but also to individual employees.

Creating a culture that values continuous improvement can be achieved by recognizing and rewarding contributions to process improvements. Additionally, involving employees in training and decision-making processes helps to demonstrate the value of their input, leading to greater acceptance and enthusiasm for the Six Sigma projects.

Learn more about Process Improvement Organizational Transformation Six Sigma Project

Long-Term Sustainment of Improvements

Ensuring that the improvements made through Six Sigma are sustained over the long term is a top concern for executives. According to a report by the American Society for Quality, organizations that focus on creating a culture of quality are 46% more likely to maintain improvements. This begins with the Control phase of DMAIC, where control plans are put in place to monitor processes and maintain performance levels.

Additionally, establishing a Six Sigma governance structure can help in overseeing the continued performance of improved processes. This can include regular audits, ongoing training programs, and periodic reviews of process metrics. By institutionalizing these practices, the organization can maintain the discipline needed to ensure that Six Sigma improvements deliver lasting value.

Scaling Six Sigma across the Organization

Once Six Sigma has been successfully applied to one project or department, scaling the methodology across the entire organization can amplify the benefits. According to PwC's Global Operations Survey, companies that scale their operational improvements across the entire organization can expect to see a 15% increase in efficiency gains. To scale Six Sigma effectively, it is important to standardize the approach and tools used so that they can be easily adopted by different parts of the organization.

Developing internal Six Sigma experts, or "Black Belts," who can lead projects in various departments is another effective strategy. These individuals serve as champions of the methodology and can facilitate the transfer of knowledge and best practices throughout the company. Investing in training and development for these key personnel is critical to the successful scaling of Six Sigma initiatives.

Learn more about Best Practices

Additional Resources Relevant to Six Sigma Project

Here are additional best practices relevant to Six Sigma Project from the Flevy Marketplace.

Did you know?
The average daily rate of a McKinsey consultant is $6,625 (not including expenses). The average price of a Flevy document is $65.

Key Findings and Results

Here is a summary of the key results of this case study:

  • Reduced process variability, achieving a 30% improvement in the Process Sigma Level across key manufacturing lines.
  • Decreased Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) by 50%, significantly enhancing product quality.
  • Implemented a predictive maintenance schedule, reducing machine downtime by 20% and increasing operational efficiency.
  • Achieved a 25% reduction in Cycle Time for critical manufacturing processes, leading to faster order fulfillment.
  • Lowered the Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) by 35%, resulting in substantial cost savings.
  • Engaged frontline employees in the improvement process, leading to more sustainable and practical enhancements.

The Six Sigma initiative at the metals corporation has been a resounding success, evidenced by significant improvements in process variability, product quality, operational efficiency, and cost savings. The reduction in DPMO and improvements in the Process Sigma Level directly address the initial challenges of maintaining quality and minimizing waste. The predictive maintenance schedule and the reduction in Cycle Time showcase the initiative's impact on operational efficiency. Moreover, the substantial decrease in COPQ highlights the financial benefits of the project. The engagement of frontline employees not only contributed to the initiative's success but also ensured its sustainability. However, the journey could have been enhanced by addressing potential resistance to change more proactively and incorporating advanced data analytics techniques earlier in the process to identify improvement opportunities more swiftly.

For next steps, it is recommended to focus on scaling the Six Sigma methodology across the entire organization to amplify the benefits observed in the initial implementation. This includes standardizing the approach and tools for easier adoption in different departments and investing in training and development for internal Six Sigma experts or "Black Belts." Additionally, establishing a continuous improvement culture by institutionalizing practices such as regular audits, ongoing training programs, and periodic reviews of process metrics will ensure that the improvements are sustained over the long term. Finally, enhancing the change management strategy to further reduce resistance and increase employee buy-in across all levels of the organization will be crucial for future initiatives.

Source: Six Sigma Efficiency Boost for Metals Corporation in North America, Flevy Management Insights, 2024

Flevy is the world's largest knowledge base of best practices.


Leverage the Experience of Experts.

Find documents of the same caliber as those used by top-tier consulting firms, like McKinsey, BCG, Bain, Deloitte, Accenture.

Download Immediately and Use.

Our PowerPoint presentations, Excel workbooks, and Word documents are completely customizable, including rebrandable.

Save Time, Effort, and Money.

Save yourself and your employees countless hours. Use that time to work on more value-added and fulfilling activities.




Read Customer Testimonials




Additional Flevy Management Insights

Receive our FREE presentation on Operational Excellence

This 50-slide presentation provides a high-level introduction to the 4 Building Blocks of Operational Excellence. Achieving OpEx requires the implementation of a Business Execution System that integrates these 4 building blocks.