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Flevy Management Insights Case Study
Inventory Optimization Strategy for a Plastics Manufacturing SME


There are countless scenarios that require Organizational Development. Fortune 500 companies typically bring on global consulting firms, like McKinsey, BCG, Bain, Deloitte, and Accenture, or boutique consulting firms specializing in Organizational Development to thoroughly analyze their unique business challenges and competitive situations. These firms provide strategic recommendations based on consulting frameworks, subject matter expertise, benchmark data, best practices, and other tools developed from past client work. Let us analyze the following scenario.

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Consider this scenario: A small to medium-sized enterprise (SME) in the plastics manufacturing sector is confronting significant Organizational Development challenges, stemming from a 20% increase in raw material costs and a 10% decline in market share over the past two years.

Externally, the organization is battling with the volatility of raw material prices and an influx of cheaper imported alternatives. Internally, inefficiencies in inventory management and production processes have led to increased operational costs and decreased profitability. The primary strategic objective of the organization is to optimize inventory levels and production efficiency to reduce costs and regain market competitiveness.



This organization, grappling with rising costs and competitive pressures, must reassess its operational and strategic framework to pinpoint underlying issues. The immediate concerns seem to stem from an outdated inventory management system and an inefficient production process, which not only inflate operational costs but also hinder the company's ability to respond agilely to market demands. Moreover, the lack of a robust strategy to counteract the impact of cheaper imports is evident.

External Analysis

The plastics manufacturing industry is currently experiencing rapid change, driven by fluctuating raw material costs, evolving environmental regulations, and increasing competition from imports.

Examining the factors influencing the competitive environment reveals:

  • Internal Rivalry: High, fueled by a large number of players competing on price and product differentiation.
  • Supplier Power: Increasing, as suppliers of raw materials can dictate terms due to the limited number of sources.
  • Buyer Power: Also high, given the availability of alternative suppliers and imported goods.
  • Threat of New Entrants: Moderate, with significant barriers to entry including the cost of establishing manufacturing capabilities and accessing raw materials.
  • Threat of Substitutes: Low to moderate, depending on the application of plastic products and the availability of alternative materials.

Emerging trends such as the push towards sustainable materials and digitalization present both challenges and opportunities:

  • Increased demand for sustainable and recyclable materials opens new market segments but requires investment in R&D.
  • Digitalization of supply chains can enhance efficiency but necessitates upfront technology investments.
  • The growing importance of e-commerce channels for B2B transactions offers new sales opportunities but requires adjustments in marketing and sales strategies.

Learn more about Supply Chain External Analysis

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Internal Assessment

The organization's inventory management and production processes are currently not aligned with best practices, leading to increased costs and reduced agility.

SWOT Analysis

The organization possesses a strong understanding of its traditional market, supported by established customer relationships. However, it faces significant weaknesses in inventory management and adapting to market changes quickly. Opportunities exist in leveraging technology for better inventory control and exploring new materials that align with sustainability trends. The primary threat comes from imported products offering similar quality at lower prices.

Value Chain Analysis

Analysis of the company's value chain identifies inefficiencies in inbound logistics and operations as key areas for improvement. Enhancing these areas through better supplier management and production optimization can lead to significant cost savings. The company's strengths lie in sales and after-sales services, which have fostered strong customer loyalty.

Learn more about Inventory Management Customer Loyalty Value Chain

Strategic Initiatives

Based on the detailed industry and internal assessments, the leadership team has identified several strategic initiatives to be implemented over the next 18 months :

  • Implement an Advanced Inventory Management System: This initiative aims to reduce carrying costs and improve material availability through just-in-time inventory practices. The expected value comes from reduced waste, improved production scheduling, and lower inventory holding costs. This will require investment in inventory management software and training for staff.
  • Develop and Market Sustainable Product Lines: By focusing on sustainable and recyclable materials, the company can differentiate itself and tap into new customer segments. This initiative involves R&D investment and marketing efforts to promote the new product lines. The source of value creation lies in accessing new markets and premium pricing opportunities.
  • Digitize the Supply Chain: Enhancing supply chain visibility and efficiency through digital tools will allow the company to respond more quickly to market changes and reduce lead times. This requires investment in supply chain management software and integration with existing systems.

Learn more about Supply Chain Management Value Creation

Organizational Development Implementation KPIs

KPIS are crucial throughout the implementation process. They provide quantifiable checkpoints to validate the alignment of operational activities with our strategic goals, ensuring that execution is not just activity-driven, but results-oriented. Further, these KPIs act as early indicators of progress or deviation, enabling agile decision-making and course correction if needed.


Tell me how you measure me, and I will tell you how I will behave.
     – Eliyahu M. Goldratt

  • Inventory Turnover Ratio: A key indicator of the efficiency of inventory management, aiming for an improvement of 25% within the first year.
  • Customer Satisfaction Score: To measure the market's reception of new sustainable product lines, with a goal of increasing scores by 15%.
  • Supply Chain Lead Time: A reduction in lead time by 20% as a result of digitization efforts.

Monitoring these KPIs will provide insights into the effectiveness of the strategic initiatives, allowing for timely adjustments and highlighting areas of success or need for further improvement.

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Organizational Development Deliverables

These are a selection of deliverables across all the strategic initiatives.

  • Inventory Optimization Framework (PPT)
  • Sustainable Product Development Plan (PPT)
  • Supply Chain Digitization Roadmap (PPT)
  • Financial Impact Analysis (Excel)

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Advanced Inventory Management System Implementation

The organization adopted the Just-In-Time (JIT) and the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) models as part of its strategic initiative to optimize inventory management. The JIT model, which focuses on minimizing inventory and reducing waste by receiving goods only as they are needed in the production process, proved invaluable. The EOQ model, on the other hand, provided an analytical method to determine the optimal order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs. These frameworks were instrumental in transforming the organization's inventory management approach.

The team implemented these frameworks through the following steps:

  • Conducted a thorough analysis of production schedules and sales forecasts to align inventory deliveries with production needs, effectively applying the JIT model.
  • Utilized the EOQ formula to calculate the most cost-effective quantity of raw materials to order, considering holding costs, ordering costs, and demand rate.
  • Engaged suppliers in discussions to ensure they could meet the more frequent, smaller delivery schedules required by the JIT approach.

The adoption of the JIT and EOQ models led to a significant reduction in inventory holding costs and minimized waste from overstocking, directly impacting the organization's bottom line positively. The strategic initiative not only optimized inventory levels but also enhanced production efficiency, demonstrating the effectiveness of applying these recognized business frameworks.

Development and Marketing of Sustainable Product Lines

For the strategic initiative focusing on the development and marketing of sustainable product lines, the organization applied the Blue Ocean Strategy and the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) framework. The Blue Ocean Strategy encouraged the organization to venture into untapped market spaces with minimal competition, which in this case, was the market for sustainable plastic products. The TBL framework ensured that the organization's efforts were not only profitable but also environmentally friendly and socially responsible.

Following the selection of these frameworks, the organization took the following steps:

  • Identified unmet needs and opportunities in the sustainable products market, aligning with the Blue Ocean Strategy's emphasis on creating new demand.
  • Developed products that met these needs while also ensuring they were economically viable (profit), environmentally sustainable (planet), and socially beneficial (people), in accordance with the TBL framework.
  • Launched targeted marketing campaigns to educate the market about the benefits of the new sustainable product lines, leveraging the differentiation established through the Blue Ocean Strategy.

The implementation of the Blue Ocean Strategy and TBL framework significantly contributed to the successful launch and market acceptance of the new sustainable product lines. The organization not only entered a market with less competition but also demonstrated its commitment to sustainability and social responsibility, enhancing its brand image and customer loyalty.

Digitization of the Supply Chain

In its pursuit to digitize the supply chain, the organization embraced the Lean Management and Digital Twin frameworks. Lean Management was utilized to streamline supply chain processes by eliminating non-value-adding activities, thus enhancing efficiency. The Digital Twin framework allowed the organization to create a virtual replica of its supply chain, enabling real-time monitoring and simulation to predict and mitigate potential issues before they impacted the physical supply chain.

The following steps were taken to implement these frameworks effectively:

  • Mapped out the entire supply chain process to identify waste and inefficiencies, applying Lean Management principles to streamline operations.
  • Developed a digital twin of the supply chain, incorporating data from various sources, including suppliers, logistics, and production, to monitor performance and simulate different scenarios.
  • Used insights gained from the digital twin simulations to make informed decisions on supply chain optimization, further supported by Lean Management practices.

The combination of Lean Management and Digital Twin frameworks significantly improved the organization's supply chain efficiency and responsiveness. The ability to anticipate and mitigate potential disruptions before they occurred resulted in smoother operations, reduced costs, and an enhanced ability to meet customer demands promptly.

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Key Findings and Results

Here is a summary of the key results of this case study:

  • Implemented Just-In-Time (JIT) and Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) models, reducing inventory holding costs and minimizing waste.
  • Launched sustainable product lines, tapping into new market segments and enhancing brand image and customer loyalty.
  • Digitized the supply chain, improving efficiency and responsiveness through Lean Management and Digital Twin frameworks.
  • Achieved a 25% improvement in inventory turnover ratio, surpassing the initial target.
  • Increased customer satisfaction scores by 15%, indicating positive reception of new sustainable product lines.
  • Reduced supply chain lead time by 20%, exceeding the goal and enhancing market responsiveness.

The strategic initiatives undertaken by the organization have yielded significant positive results, demonstrating the effectiveness of the chosen frameworks and strategies. The implementation of JIT and EOQ models has directly addressed the challenge of high inventory costs, while the development and marketing of sustainable product lines have not only opened new revenue streams but also improved the company's brand image and customer loyalty. Digitizing the supply chain has enhanced operational efficiency and responsiveness, a critical factor in today's volatile market. However, the success in these areas does not overshadow the challenges faced. The initial investments in technology and training for staff were substantial, and the return on these investments took longer than anticipated, impacting short-term financial performance. Additionally, the focus on new sustainable product lines and supply chain digitization may have diverted attention from addressing the threat of cheaper imports more aggressively.

Given the results and challenges encountered, it is recommended that the organization continues to refine and expand its sustainable product lines, leveraging the positive market response and brand image enhancement. To address the threat of imports, a dual strategy of cost leadership in traditional product lines and differentiation in sustainable products should be pursued. Further investment in market analysis and customer feedback mechanisms is also advised to better anticipate and respond to market trends. Finally, exploring strategic partnerships or alliances to enhance market reach and supply chain resilience could provide a competitive edge and mitigate the risks associated with reliance on a limited number of suppliers.

Source: Inventory Optimization Strategy for a Plastics Manufacturing SME, Flevy Management Insights, 2024

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